Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. He is considered by many scholars to be one of the most influential people in the history of the world.
His Philosophie Naturalis Principia Mathematica which was published in 1687, is probably the most important scientific book ever written. In this book Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was responsible for building the first practical telescope and developed a theory of color based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colors that form the visible spectrum. Newton also formulated an empirical law of cooling as well as studied the speed of sound.