Jean-Paul Sartre was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and
phenomenology and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism.
Sartre was also noted for his open relationship with prominent feminist and fellow existentialist philosopher and writer Simone de Beauvoir. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought.