James Connolly was an Irish republican and socialist leader, aligned to syndicalism and De Leonism.
Connolly was born in the Cow gate area of Edinburgh, Scotland, to Irish parents. He left school for working life at the age of 11, but became one of the leading Marxist theorists of his day. He also took a role in Scottish and American politics. He was executed by a British firing squad because of his leadership role in the Easter Rising of 1916.