Epictetus was a Greek stoic philosopher. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond human control. He states that people should accept whatever happens calmly.
His teachings also mention that suffering occurs from trying to control what is uncontrollable or from neglecting what is within people’s power. Epictetus was convinced that human society was part of a greater universe and that it is people’s duty to care for others. According to him, those who would follow these principles would achieve happiness.