Robert Fischer was an American chess grand master and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him to be the greatest chess player of all time.
In 1972, he captured the World Chess Championship from Boris Spas sky of the USSR in a match held in Reykjavik, Iceland, publicized as a Cold War confrontation, which attracted more worldwide interest than any chess championship before or since.
In 1975, Fischer refused to defend his title when an agreement could not be reached with FIDE, the game’s international governing body, over one of the conditions for the match. This resulted in Soviet GM Anatoly Karpov, who had won the qualifying Candidates’ cycle, becoming the new world champion by default under FIDE rules.