Adam Ferguson also known as Ferguson of Raith was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. Ferguson was sympathetic to traditional societies, such as the Highlands, for producing courage and loyalty.
He criticized commercial society as making men weak, dishonourable and unconcerned for their community. Ferguson has been called “the father of modern sociology” for his contributions to the early development of the discipline. His most well known work is his Essay on the History of Civil Society.